Since the twentieth century, the teaching and learning of literature have primarily focused on developing language, communication, and to some extent, critical thinking skills. Literary texts are included in education curricula with the primary intention that they help students develop good listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. As a result, assessments in literary studies have also focused on testing language proficiency such as comprehension, vocabulary, and grammar. This has led to the misconception that in the multimodal, digital twenty-first century environment, the study of literature has little to offer beyond language development. This article aims to demonstrate that in addition to language and communication skills, literary studies can also be used to develop multimodal literacies and entrepreneurial skills such as creativity, leadership, reflective thinking, problem solving, and collaboration which are all highly valued in the twenty-first century. Through detailed explication of an innovative, alternative assessment for a literature course offered at The National University of Malaysia, this study showcases how multimodal literacy and entrepreneurial skills are developed through literary studies. This study presents the wide-ranging potential of literary studies and how, with the use of the creative and innovative teaching and assessment approaches, literature can remain valuable and relevant in the twenty-first century.


literary, twenty-first century, alternative assessments, multimodal, entrepreneurial skills

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Kritika Kultura
Department of English
School of Humanities
Ateneo de Manila University

The Philippine Commission on Higher Education (CHED) declares Kritika Kultura as a CHED-recognized journal under the Journal Challenge Category of its Journal Incentive Program.

International Board of Editors

Jan Baetens
Faculty of Arts
Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven (Belgium)

Joel David
Professor of Cultural Studies
Inha University (South Korea)

Michael Denning
Professor of American Studies and English
Department of English
Yale University (US)

Faculty of Cultural Sciences
Universitas Gadjah Mada (Indonesia)

Regenia Gagnier
Professor of English
University of Exeter (UK)

Leela Gandhi
John Hawkes Professor of the Humanities and English
Brown University (US)

Inderpal Grewal
Professor of Women's Gender and Sexuality Studies
Professor of South Asian Studies, Ethnicity, Race and Migration Studies
Yale University (US)

Peter Horn
Professor Emeritus and Honorary Lifetime Fellow
University of Cape Town (South Africa)
Honorary Professor and Research Associate in German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

Anette Horn
Professor of German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

David Lloyd
Distinguished Professor of English
University of California, Riverside (US)

Bienvenido Lumbera
National Artist for Literature
Professor Emeritus
University of the Philippines

Rajeev S. Patke
Director of the Division of Humanities
Professor of Humanities
Yale NUS College (Singapore)

Vicente L. Rafael
Giovanni and Amne Costigan Endowed Professor of History
University of Washington (US)

Vaidehi Ramanathan
Department of Linguistics
University of California, Davis (US)

Temario Rivera
Professorial Lecturer
Department of Political Science
University of the Philippines

E. San Juan, Jr.
Philippines Studies Center (US)

Neferti X.M. Tadiar
Professor of Women’s, Gender, & Sexuality Studies
Barnard College (US)
Director of the Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race
Columbia University (US)

Antony Tatlow
Honorary Professor of Drama
Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)