This research presents two main streams of discourse on managing an interesting cultural export product that has earned phenomenal worldwide attention: (1) The influence of fan passions on consumer engagement (CE) behaviors; and (2) the theoretical and practical value of perceiving CE as a process, analyzed within the context of the Hallyu, or Korean Wave, phenomenon, specifically for K-pop and K-drama fans. Analyzing 6,755 survey responses from Philippine fans, the multiple regression results find that fan passions are indeed favorably significant drivers of online CE behaviors of pop cultural content consumption, community formation, conversation making, and commerce behaviors. Furthermore, this research lends empirical support that pop cultural content consumption is central to this CE process. Additional bootstrapping analyses show that this process is not strictly linear, and that other phases within the process can amplify each other to produce more favorable behaviors and outcomes. This research provides quantitative empirical results supporting key areas for scholars regarding the application of theory-based CE on particular pop cultural products and consumer segments, and for organizations on how to strategize towards maximizing the benefits of good CE management involving pop cultural product consumption.


consumer engagement, customer loyalty, fan passions, Korean Wave, purchase intentions, word-of-mouth

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Kritika Kultura
Department of English
School of Humanities
Ateneo de Manila University

The Philippine Commission on Higher Education (CHED) declares Kritika Kultura as a CHED-recognized journal under the Journal Challenge Category of its Journal Incentive Program.

International Board of Editors

Jan Baetens
Faculty of Arts
Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven (Belgium)

Joel David
Professor of Cultural Studies
Inha University (South Korea)

Michael Denning
Professor of American Studies and English
Department of English
Yale University (US)

Faculty of Cultural Sciences
Universitas Gadjah Mada (Indonesia)

Regenia Gagnier
Professor of English
University of Exeter (UK)

Leela Gandhi
John Hawkes Professor of the Humanities and English
Brown University (US)

Inderpal Grewal
Professor of Women's Gender and Sexuality Studies
Professor of South Asian Studies, Ethnicity, Race and Migration Studies
Yale University (US)

Peter Horn
Professor Emeritus and Honorary Lifetime Fellow
University of Cape Town (South Africa)
Honorary Professor and Research Associate in German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

Anette Horn
Professor of German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

David Lloyd
Distinguished Professor of English
University of California, Riverside (US)

Bienvenido Lumbera
National Artist for Literature
Professor Emeritus
University of the Philippines

Rajeev S. Patke
Director of the Division of Humanities
Professor of Humanities
Yale NUS College (Singapore)

Vicente L. Rafael
Giovanni and Amne Costigan Endowed Professor of History
University of Washington (US)

Vaidehi Ramanathan
Department of Linguistics
University of California, Davis (US)

Temario Rivera
Professorial Lecturer
Department of Political Science
University of the Philippines

E. San Juan, Jr.
Philippines Studies Center (US)

Neferti X.M. Tadiar
Professor of Women’s, Gender, & Sexuality Studies
Barnard College (US)
Director of the Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race
Columbia University (US)

Antony Tatlow
Honorary Professor of Drama
Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)