This is a personal testimony of a dramatist trained and honed in the craft of drama and stage during the Marcos dictatorship. Unable to finish college, and without a formal training in drama or playwriting, my main reason for writing and struggling in the field of theater was to be able to address the need for change in the Filipino audience’s social consciousness. It will deal with the following topics: what my training ground had been like under the informal guidance of playwrights who had just a little bit more training than I had in the craft, the different dramatic styles used, dramaturgical devices that my colleagues and I developed in order to avoid the clutches of censorship and repression of the Marcos regime, what my dramatist collaborators and contemporaries and I drew from other political plays from other countries (like the agit-prop forms, dramatic theories of Brecht), as well as from the earlier political dramas in the country (seditious plays of the American colonial era), and the radical tradition that had taken shape in the Philippines prior to Martial Law, and how we tried to help in building the foundation of playwriting in the country, and developing the forms that were produced for lightning productions as well as the most effective dramatic strategies in the theatrical exposition of issues in order to persuade and enlighten the audience.

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Kritika Kultura
Department of English
School of Humanities
Ateneo de Manila University

The Philippine Commission on Higher Education (CHED) declares Kritika Kultura as a CHED-recognized journal under the Journal Challenge Category of its Journal Incentive Program.

International Board of Editors

Jan Baetens
Faculty of Arts
Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven (Belgium)

Joel David
Professor of Cultural Studies
Inha University (South Korea)

Michael Denning
Professor of American Studies and English
Department of English
Yale University (US)

Faculty of Cultural Sciences
Universitas Gadjah Mada (Indonesia)

Regenia Gagnier
Professor of English
University of Exeter (UK)

Leela Gandhi
John Hawkes Professor of the Humanities and English
Brown University (US)

Inderpal Grewal
Professor of Women's Gender and Sexuality Studies
Professor of South Asian Studies, Ethnicity, Race and Migration Studies
Yale University (US)

Peter Horn
Professor Emeritus and Honorary Lifetime Fellow
University of Cape Town (South Africa)
Honorary Professor and Research Associate in German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

Anette Horn
Professor of German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

David Lloyd
Distinguished Professor of English
University of California, Riverside (US)

Bienvenido Lumbera
National Artist for Literature
Professor Emeritus
University of the Philippines

Rajeev S. Patke
Director of the Division of Humanities
Professor of Humanities
Yale NUS College (Singapore)

Vicente L. Rafael
Giovanni and Amne Costigan Endowed Professor of History
University of Washington (US)

Vaidehi Ramanathan
Department of Linguistics
University of California, Davis (US)

Temario Rivera
Professorial Lecturer
Department of Political Science
University of the Philippines

E. San Juan, Jr.
Philippines Studies Center (US)

Neferti X.M. Tadiar
Professor of Women’s, Gender, & Sexuality Studies
Barnard College (US)
Director of the Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race
Columbia University (US)

Antony Tatlow
Honorary Professor of Drama
Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)