Two themes from Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari’s study, Kafka Toward aMinor Literature, serve as an inspiration for this rumination on Carlos Bulosan’s1955 letter to Florentino B. Valeros about writing and the responsibilities of thewriter. Because Bulosan was an inherently political writer, his correspondenceis part-and-parcel of his writing machine, inclusive of his poetry, short stories,novels, and expository essays. In this, Bulosan’s case is parallel to that of Kafka. Incontradistinction to Kafka, however, Bulosan’s letters are not easily categorized interms of thematics such as those Deleuze and Guattari identify in the cases of Kafkaand Proust. Because both his life and his cultural production were forged in the heatof struggles for workers’ rights, against racism, and against various manifestationsof anti-immigrant, anti-Filipino, and anti-progressive sentiments during his lifetime,Bulosan’s correspondence demarks a line of flight that is distinctive from theconventions expressed by other authors in their letters.


America Is in the Heart as minor literature, Bulosan’s letters, Carlos Bulosan, Carlos Bulosan on writing and art, Carlos Bulosan, political writing, politics and writing

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Kritika Kultura
Department of English
School of Humanities
Ateneo de Manila University

The Philippine Commission on Higher Education (CHED) declares Kritika Kultura as a CHED-recognized journal under the Journal Challenge Category of its Journal Incentive Program.

International Board of Editors

Jan Baetens
Faculty of Arts
Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven (Belgium)

Joel David
Professor of Cultural Studies
Inha University (South Korea)

Michael Denning
Professor of American Studies and English
Department of English
Yale University (US)

Faculty of Cultural Sciences
Universitas Gadjah Mada (Indonesia)

Regenia Gagnier
Professor of English
University of Exeter (UK)

Leela Gandhi
John Hawkes Professor of the Humanities and English
Brown University (US)

Inderpal Grewal
Professor of Women's Gender and Sexuality Studies
Professor of South Asian Studies, Ethnicity, Race and Migration Studies
Yale University (US)

Peter Horn
Professor Emeritus and Honorary Lifetime Fellow
University of Cape Town (South Africa)
Honorary Professor and Research Associate in German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

Anette Horn
Professor of German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

David Lloyd
Distinguished Professor of English
University of California, Riverside (US)

Bienvenido Lumbera
National Artist for Literature
Professor Emeritus
University of the Philippines

Rajeev S. Patke
Director of the Division of Humanities
Professor of Humanities
Yale NUS College (Singapore)

Vicente L. Rafael
Giovanni and Amne Costigan Endowed Professor of History
University of Washington (US)

Vaidehi Ramanathan
Department of Linguistics
University of California, Davis (US)

Temario Rivera
Professorial Lecturer
Department of Political Science
University of the Philippines

E. San Juan, Jr.
Philippines Studies Center (US)

Neferti X.M. Tadiar
Professor of Women’s, Gender, & Sexuality Studies
Barnard College (US)
Director of the Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race
Columbia University (US)

Antony Tatlow
Honorary Professor of Drama
Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)