This article takes the 2013 passage of California Assembly Bill 123, which mandatesinstruction on the Filipino contribution to the state’s farm workers movementin public education curriculum, as an occasion to analyze the gendered andsexualized dimensions of Carlos Bulosan’s literature and labor activism. The articleconsiders the texts and contexts of America is in the Heart and Bulosan’s shortstory “As Long as the Grass Shall Grow” to demonstrate how Bulosan’s materialist,dialectical analysis also involves an incisive critique of the intersections of class,race, gender, and sexuality. As Bulosan narrates the proletariat struggles of themanong generation, he reveals how the Filipino immigrant’s status as racializedlabor is also gendered and sexualized therefore necessitating that one’s laboractivism be defined by an anti-patriarchal and anti-heteronormative stance. In thisway, Bulosan presents us with a potentially expansive model of Filipino politicalconsciousness, a model that is not restricted to a masculine revolutionary practicecharacterized by a laboring brotherhood. Furthermore, it is a revolutionary practicethat by its very nature resists a toothless multicultural inclusion in state andnational history and highlights the racialized, gendered, and sexualized violenceof both US neocolonialism and domestic racism. Ultimately, this article insists thatBulosan calls for an intersectional liberatory praxis that is both anticolonial andanti-capitalist.


anti-heteronormative, anti-patriarchal, America is in the Heart, Carlos Bulosan, CA Assembly Bill 123, gender, manong generation, sexuality

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Kritika Kultura
Department of English
School of Humanities
Ateneo de Manila University

The Philippine Commission on Higher Education (CHED) declares Kritika Kultura as a CHED-recognized journal under the Journal Challenge Category of its Journal Incentive Program.

International Board of Editors

Jan Baetens
Faculty of Arts
Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven (Belgium)

Joel David
Professor of Cultural Studies
Inha University (South Korea)

Michael Denning
Professor of American Studies and English
Department of English
Yale University (US)

Faculty of Cultural Sciences
Universitas Gadjah Mada (Indonesia)

Regenia Gagnier
Professor of English
University of Exeter (UK)

Leela Gandhi
John Hawkes Professor of the Humanities and English
Brown University (US)

Inderpal Grewal
Professor of Women's Gender and Sexuality Studies
Professor of South Asian Studies, Ethnicity, Race and Migration Studies
Yale University (US)

Peter Horn
Professor Emeritus and Honorary Lifetime Fellow
University of Cape Town (South Africa)
Honorary Professor and Research Associate in German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

Anette Horn
Professor of German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

David Lloyd
Distinguished Professor of English
University of California, Riverside (US)

Bienvenido Lumbera
National Artist for Literature
Professor Emeritus
University of the Philippines

Rajeev S. Patke
Director of the Division of Humanities
Professor of Humanities
Yale NUS College (Singapore)

Vicente L. Rafael
Giovanni and Amne Costigan Endowed Professor of History
University of Washington (US)

Vaidehi Ramanathan
Department of Linguistics
University of California, Davis (US)

Temario Rivera
Professorial Lecturer
Department of Political Science
University of the Philippines

E. San Juan, Jr.
Philippines Studies Center (US)

Neferti X.M. Tadiar
Professor of Women’s, Gender, & Sexuality Studies
Barnard College (US)
Director of the Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race
Columbia University (US)

Antony Tatlow
Honorary Professor of Drama
Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)