Given the reality of our neocolonial situation, the discipline of literary study fulfills its received pedagogical function of converting reason-bearing individuals into obedient subjects. This normative ideology represses criticism, concealing the lived experience of exploitation and class conficts. The concept of ideology itself is suppressed, replaced with accepted terms and approved habits of interpretation. Meanings of art-works are identified with the single author’s identity, thus ignoring or excluding their enabling contexts and institutional practices. Using a symptomatic, historicist reading of Lualhati Bautista’s novel
as an example, this essay argues that the ideology of texts differs from that of the author owing to diverse mediating factors. Current forces of alienation and reification intervene. Through their own mechanisms of interpellation, texts transform readers into subjects who attempt to imaginarily resolve real social contradictions. Given our multilingual and multiethnic audience, the choice of language for literary expression becomes crucial in the process of articulating textual meanings as multifaceted, dynamic reflections of specific conjunctures in Philippine history.



Awtor, Diskurso, Ideolohiya, Indibidwal, Kahulugan, Kontradiksyon, Sabjek

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Kritika Kultura
Department of English
School of Humanities
Ateneo de Manila University

The Philippine Commission on Higher Education (CHED) declares Kritika Kultura as a CHED-recognized journal under the Journal Challenge Category of its Journal Incentive Program.

International Board of Editors

Jan Baetens
Faculty of Arts
Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven (Belgium)

Joel David
Professor of Cultural Studies
Inha University (South Korea)

Michael Denning
Professor of American Studies and English
Department of English
Yale University (US)

Faculty of Cultural Sciences
Universitas Gadjah Mada (Indonesia)

Regenia Gagnier
Professor of English
University of Exeter (UK)

Leela Gandhi
John Hawkes Professor of the Humanities and English
Brown University (US)

Inderpal Grewal
Professor of Women's Gender and Sexuality Studies
Professor of South Asian Studies, Ethnicity, Race and Migration Studies
Yale University (US)

Peter Horn
Professor Emeritus and Honorary Lifetime Fellow
University of Cape Town (South Africa)
Honorary Professor and Research Associate in German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

Anette Horn
Professor of German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

David Lloyd
Distinguished Professor of English
University of California, Riverside (US)

Bienvenido Lumbera
National Artist for Literature
Professor Emeritus
University of the Philippines

Rajeev S. Patke
Director of the Division of Humanities
Professor of Humanities
Yale NUS College (Singapore)

Vicente L. Rafael
Giovanni and Amne Costigan Endowed Professor of History
University of Washington (US)

Vaidehi Ramanathan
Department of Linguistics
University of California, Davis (US)

Temario Rivera
Professorial Lecturer
Department of Political Science
University of the Philippines

E. San Juan, Jr.
Philippines Studies Center (US)

Neferti X.M. Tadiar
Professor of Women’s, Gender, & Sexuality Studies
Barnard College (US)
Director of the Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race
Columbia University (US)

Antony Tatlow
Honorary Professor of Drama
Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)