Despite the growing digitalization and globalization, the industrial map of the world remains to display high-level concentration of resources and productivity in certain geographical locations called clusters. These locations such as Silicon Valley and Hollywood continue to attract entrepreneurs and large firms, enjoying strong sustainability and competitiveness. As the agglomerate of diverse entities and institutions, clusters play a significant role for improving the overall growth of the industry. This is more evident in the cultural industries where the relatively high unpredictability, expanding scale of investments, and the importance of physical location for consuming cultural contents require firms and participants to cooperate in proximity. In order to examine the importance of clusters in the cultural industries, this study first conducts a theoretical review on the role of clusters in this industry. Then, the paper analyzes the historically meaningful cultural clusters, Italy during the Renaissance and the US Hollywood of modern times, by evaluating the role of four interactive factors: firm, people, education, and government. The analysis of these two cases reveals that the  interactions among the four factors significantly influence the scale and competitiveness of cultural clusters. Ultimately, the paper provides some important options for further development of the Korean wave or Hallyu by utilizing the cluster strategy.


ABCD model, cultural cluster, ecosystem, Hallyu, Hollywood, Italian Renaissance

Please login first to access subscription form of article

Read Full text in PDF

Browse By

Kritika Kultura
Department of English
School of Humanities
Ateneo de Manila University

The Philippine Commission on Higher Education (CHED) declares Kritika Kultura as a CHED-recognized journal under the Journal Challenge Category of its Journal Incentive Program.

International Board of Editors

Jan Baetens
Faculty of Arts
Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven (Belgium)

Joel David
Professor of Cultural Studies
Inha University (South Korea)

Michael Denning
Professor of American Studies and English
Department of English
Yale University (US)

Faculty of Cultural Sciences
Universitas Gadjah Mada (Indonesia)

Regenia Gagnier
Professor of English
University of Exeter (UK)

Leela Gandhi
John Hawkes Professor of the Humanities and English
Brown University (US)

Inderpal Grewal
Professor of Women's Gender and Sexuality Studies
Professor of South Asian Studies, Ethnicity, Race and Migration Studies
Yale University (US)

Peter Horn
Professor Emeritus and Honorary Lifetime Fellow
University of Cape Town (South Africa)
Honorary Professor and Research Associate in German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

Anette Horn
Professor of German Studies
University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

David Lloyd
Distinguished Professor of English
University of California, Riverside (US)

Bienvenido Lumbera
National Artist for Literature
Professor Emeritus
University of the Philippines

Rajeev S. Patke
Director of the Division of Humanities
Professor of Humanities
Yale NUS College (Singapore)

Vicente L. Rafael
Giovanni and Amne Costigan Endowed Professor of History
University of Washington (US)

Vaidehi Ramanathan
Department of Linguistics
University of California, Davis (US)

Temario Rivera
Professorial Lecturer
Department of Political Science
University of the Philippines

E. San Juan, Jr.
Philippines Studies Center (US)

Neferti X.M. Tadiar
Professor of Women’s, Gender, & Sexuality Studies
Barnard College (US)
Director of the Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race
Columbia University (US)

Antony Tatlow
Honorary Professor of Drama
Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)