The planet is in the midst of an environmental crisis. Human behavior toward the environment is based on belief systems. Belief systems that are earth- or nature-friendly will help to preserve the earth more than those that are not. The paper posits, using hermeneutic and analytic methods, that the traditional Shinto idea of “kami” and the African panpsychic idea, which sees the presence of the divine or spirits in all things, provide a basis for the protection of the environment.


Shinto, kami, African Panpsychism, environment, traditional wisdom

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