This paper discusses two short stories by Jose Gallardo, a Kapampangan writer who survived World War II. “Sumpa ning Poeta” and “Bale Tisa” are analyzed as “socially symbolic acts” illustrating experiences of social and economic marginality. Through his literary engagement Gallardo gave voice to the marginalized sector of his society and, at the same time, harnessed his intense personal desire to promote Kapampangan literature.


Jose Gallardo, Kapampangan, socially symbolic acts, poverty

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